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Sectoral Vocabularies

Sectoral Vocabularies

ABC Classification Method: Classification of products in inventory according to their circulation, quantities, values.

Agent: A person or organization that provides service in an region on behalf of the companies.

Emergency Stock: Stock that kept on hand for unplanned, emergency situations.

Opentop Container: A container that does not fit into a standard container or cannot be loaded from the container door with a forklift or similar vehicle.

ADR: The standard, which includes the rules for the transportation of flammable, combustible and explosive materials by road, and which determines the documents that vehicles and drivers must have in order to transport these materials.

Inventory Accuracy in the Address: Matching the products physically in the logistics facility with the products registered in the relevant place on the system.

Payment Under Letter Of Credit – L/C: A conditional commitment given by a bank, detailed by the buyer, in line with the receiver's demand explaining that payment will be made to the specified seller in return for the presentation of documents relating to the good or service.

Transfer: The process of unloading the loads and loading them into another vehicle to be shipped in a short time without any process.

Transshipment Center: Process center where the inbound load is unloaded, the outbound is loaded in order to be sent to their destination, cargoes are kept in short time intervals during the day, cargo transfer between vehicles is made.

Active Block: Stacking the loads, which are worked on, which materials put on/removed from as required.

Warehouse Receipt(ATF): The document certifying that the goods have been transferred to the responsibility of the related party with the signature and stamp while receiving or delivering the goods from the company which provided storage, transportation and/or logistics services, supplier or customer.

Main Route: The most suitable and most-used route between the departure and destination points.

Master Airway Bill – MAWB: Consignments in airway shipments from a real sender to a real receiver.

Contract Warehouse: A warehouse at which warehousing operations are conducted on behalf of customer(s) according to a contract.

Bonded Warehouse: A type of warehouse where goods subject to customs transactions are kept while they are under custom surveillance, and where necessary transactions were conducted so that foreign trade transactions were completed.

House Airway Bill – HAWB: Loading document issued by agents and used for airway freights. This document also contains loading instructions, description of the good and the transportation fee to be applied for destination agency.

Storage: The fee paid for the place where the goods are kept, preserved and the service.

Laydays and Cancelling Clause – LayCan: Period that a ship can stay in the port for loading and unloading.

Echelon Inventory: A stock in supply chain to meet the customer's requirements.

ATA Actual Time of Arrival.

Ata Carnet: The carnet serves as a warrant and declaration paper which enables the temporary admission of the goods without customs duty, between the countries within the scope of International Import Agreement.

ATD: (Actual Time of Departure) The document which provides temporary export and import of the good.          

ATR Movement Certificate: According to Customs Union agreement signed between Turkey and European Commission, document issued by exporter in order to benefit from customs exemption on export of goods in free circulation.

AWB: (Air WayBill - Air Consignment Note Addressing), putting the goods or carrying units such as baskets, parcel, pallet, physically to a address in facility and matching the identity number of the address with the goods and carrying units were placed with an identity number and saving them to the system.

BAF: (Bunker Adjustment Factor) Freight item which is determined every month for not to be affected from the fluctuations on oil prices.

Conveyor Belt System: Conveyors whose carrying surface are made of materials like plastic, rubber, and which are designed with the potential of carrying goods like boxed or packaged materials, bulk materials.

Waiting Period: Period when the load doesn't move physically.

Declared Value: Value of goods that the sender declared.

B-L: Marine Bill of Lading          

Unit Train: It is the allocation of the entire railway train to a single product. Said product may belong to one company.

B2B: (Business to Business) Intercompany trade.

B2C: (Business to Consumer) Trade for the final consumer.       

Break-Bulk: Products that need to be loaded separately.

Currency Adjustment Factor: Additional cost included to the freight for constantly changing exchange rates.

Chargeable weight/Freight measurement: . Measurement of freight on the basis of weight according to the area the load does cover.

Chassis Chassis/Semi hanger: . Transportation of out-of-gauge loads that cannot be transported with standard transportation methods and cargo, with special vehicles and expert team.

Cost and Freight: An international method that only used in sea and inland water transportation which cost of goods and freight are paid. It defines that the seller brings the goods to the port where they will be loaded, delivers them to the ship as cleared for export by assuming all costs and risks. Consignee takes the risks about damage and loss of the goods when the goods are loaded to the ship, the transfer of costs to the consignee takes place at the port of destination.

Cost, Insurance and Freight: An international method that only used in sea and inland water transportation which cost of goods and freight are paid. It defines that the seller brings the goods to the port where they will be loaded, delivers them to the ship as cleared for export by assuming all costs and risks. Furthermore, the seller makes an insurance contract at the minimum coverage rate on behalf of the consignee against the risk of loss and damage during the transportation of the goods. Consignee takes the risks about damage and loss of the goods when the goods are loaded to the ship, the transfer of costs to the consignee takes place at the port of destination and risk transfers to the consignee.

Carriage and Insurance Paid To: An international transportation method which cost of goods, insurance, and freight are paid, and is used for all types of transportation. It defines that the seller will deliver the goods to a carrier or other person of his choice as cleared for export and the seller has to pay the transportation costs to bring the goods to the determined destination. By paying the insurance premium, the seller takes out an insurance at the minimum coverage rate suitable for the type of goods loaded. The seller is deemed to have fulfilled his obligation to deliver when the goods are delivered to the carrier, not when the goods reach the destination.

CMR Agreement: Road transportation document used by the countries which accepts the provisions of CMR Agreement. It shows that the transportation is made according to the CMR provisions.

CMR International Consignment Note: A document issued by the shipping company on behalf of the consignee, showing that the goods have been received in good condition to be transported under the specified conditions and that the consignment contract has been made.

COD: Cash on Delivery. It is also called collect on delivery.         

COD: Change of Destination.

Consignee: Buyer.        

Consignor Sender/Shipper: Sender of the goods and the place where the goods are sent from.

Control Tower: . The term logistics firms that seamlessly manage and further develop the supply chain and product flow for establishments. 

Conversion Key: Table of basis for conversion between units of measure.

CPT (Carriage Paid To): An international method that used in multimodal transportations which cost of goods and freight are paid. It defines that the seller will deliver the goods to a carrier or other person of his choice as cleared for export and the seller has to pay the transportation costs to bring the goods to the determined destination. All the risks about the goods and expenses other than freight, transfer to the consignee as a general rule from the moment the goods are transferred to the custody of the first carrier.

Cross Docking Shipment of the products from the supplier by grouping according to the requirements of the customers without being taken into warehouse and without spoiling the contents on the basis of the transport container.

Packing List: Parcel, packing List. A detailed list showing the number of items, parts, weights, sizes and numbers of the items in the cargo, as well as the recipient information and addresses.

Distributed Inventory: Keeping the same material inventory in different places.

Distribution: All of the transaction of transport and delivery of the goods to specific locations within the conditions of indicated time and quantity.

Distribution Network: System which elements like warehouse, route, selling point are identified during the period between transport and delivery of the goods.

Distribution Channel: All connection points from the establishment to the end-user, of goods produced and services offered by the establishment.

Distribution Center: Logistics Facilities where storage, value-added operations, handling, packaging and transportation of the goods that come from supplier or suppliers are done till their distribution.

DAP: (Delivered At Place) An international transportation method which cost of goods, insurance, freight, and domestic transportation fees are paid, and is used for all types of transportation. It defines that the seller delivers the goods by giving the goods to the consignee's possession without unloading the transport vehicle that comes to determined destination. The seller undertakes the whole damage and expenses related to transporting the goods to the determined destination. The seller undertakes whole expenses till the destination, however, customs transactions and expenses in the receiving country are in responsibility of the consignee.

Narrow Aisle Warehousing System: Shelving systems are used in warehouses in order to use the warehouse volume vertically more efficiently. The spaces between shelf systems are called aisles. While using standard handling machines like forklift, these aisles must have a 3 meters width. Warehousing system which aisles widths are narrowed till 2 meters with special handling machines in order to use the warehouse volume horizontally more efficiently.

  Narrow Aisle Warehouse Equipment: Equipment used to place or take the pallets to/from the shelves by moving between aisles with the help of guides such as rail, laser light, magnetic line in the Narrow Aisle Storage System. Models in which the operator's cabinet can move vertically with the product are called "man-up", and models where the cabinet stays at the ground shelf level are called "man-down”. besides the handling of pallets, “Man-up” model can also be used in collecting orders from shelves.

DAT: (Delivered At Terminal) An international transportation method which cost of goods, insurance, freight, and domestic transportation fees are paid, and is used for all types of transportation. It defines that the seller delivers the goods by giving the goods to the consignee's possession by unloading the transport vehicle that comes to determined destination or the terminal in the port. DAT, leaving the goods to the consignee's possession as unloading expenses are covered by the seller in the terminal point where seller and consignee are agreed on.

DDP: (Delivered Duty Paid)  An international transportation method which cost of goods, insurance, freight, and domestic transportation fees are paid, and is used for all types of transportation. Seller's delivery liability ends by keeping the goods ready in the agreed place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear the risks and expenses, including the taxes, duties and other charges necessary for passing through the customs and transportations of the goods to the destination.

DGR: An airway transportation term. Dangerous goods regulations.

Demurrage: Ship exceeds the allocated loading or unloading period, or when the goods waiting inside the container are not cleared from customs and unloaded.

Counterbalance Truck Truck where the load is placed on the fork in front of the front wheel, where the weight on the rear wheel balances the load, the fork moves only in the vertical direction, does not go forward or backward, all other movements are provided by the movement of the vehicle.

Deep sea: Marine Transportation term Deep sea passages between continents.

Warehouse: Intermediate points used during the whole process from the raw material phase to the production and distribution of goods to consumption centers.

Warehouse Management System: System that records and reports the whole process from admission of the goods to warehouses, including the yard management, till their transportation, in computer environment and using automatic recognition technologies,  that guides employees by making decisions with smart algorithms on issues such as address determination and location, and provides tracking and planning of resources.

Volumetric Weight:  It is the value obtained by dividing the three dimensions (width, length, height) of cargo such as packages, crates, parcels by 3.000 after multiplying each other in centimeters to be used in the calculation of freight transportation fee.

Detention: Late fee. Container rental fee.

Yard Management: Ensuring and monitoring that all vehicles and person within the borders of Logistics facility act in accordance with defined processes and rules about traffic flow, using of parking lots, protection of security chain.

Vertical Storage System: A mechatronic system with an elevator system and trays in each module. A system that allows products or containers such as baskets and parcels to be placed on trays and transported vertically with the elevator system and stored.

Vertical Conveyor System: Conveyor system used in cases where the transmission between floors, mezzanine floors or stations with a height difference within the same floor is not long enough to be solved with an inclined conveyor.

Direct Shipment: A method of delivering goods to the customer directly without storing.

Document: Each of the documents such as invoice, purchase order.

Dozvola: TIR transit passage permit certificate which is used between countries. Countries mutually pay annual Dozvola Certificate fee. In this way, TIRs can do transit cargo transportation in countries.

Bulk Cargo: The type of loading where the cargo is not in a transport container that can be handled with the equipment and handling requires touching the load.

Cycle Count: Counting and recording of the inventory regularly on specific periods for ensuring the accuracy of the inventory.

Fourth Party Logistics – 4PL: Companies combining their organizational resources, skills and technology with third party logistics (3PL) companies and undertaking the supply chain design and management in order to offer comprehensive supply chain solutions to the customers.

Dry Bulk Cargo: It is used for unpacked products such as sand, cereal.

EAN: European Article Numbering. European Article Number.

EDI: Electronic Data Interchange. Electronic data sharing during applications.

Electrical Stacker: Electrical equipment which is used for stacking by moving loads with pallet vertically. There is no a cabin for operator in the equipment, operator uses the equipment on foot.

 Electric Pallet Trucks (Jet): Manually operated and electrical/battery powered equipment used to transport loads with pallet in a horizontal direction pratically.

The Electronic Product Code: Code containing information about manufacturer, product type and serial number for instant and automatic identification and tracking of a product globally in the supply chain.

Handling: A comprehensive term for all the operations such as changing the location of the products, deteriorating and re-creating the package structure, changing the container sizes, controlling, labeling, stretching in logistics facilities.

Commodity: The name given to all goods and products subject to trade.

Inventory: Physical or financial list of all inventory stocks within the facility.

Access Area: Shelf compartment or passage used to access stacks.

ERP: Enterprise resource planning. the integrated management of main business processes, often in real time and mediated by software and technology.

Flexi Conveyor: Conveyor model that each part is 1 meter in length and can adapt to different distances by lengthening and shortening

Flow Thru: Similarly to cross-docking, this is a process of transporting products by sorting them according to customers' orders without storing. However, differently from the cross-docking, content of the container may change, therefore entry and order preparation processes of the products within the container performed simultaneously by handling products one by one.

ETA: Estimated Time Of Arrival .

ETD: Estimated Time of Departure .

Euro Pallet: Pallets which have specific size, quality, material type, humidity, nails used, and which conform to these standardizations. Standard number of Euro Pallet is UIC 435-2V. Sizes are 80 cm x 120 cm.

EUR-1 Certificate: EUR-1 European Free Movement Certificate.

EXW: Ex Works. International trade term that describes when a seller makes a product available at a designated location, and the buyer of the product must cover the transport costs

Ex Declaration: Export Decleration.

Extranet: A network where all types of different organization such as customers, supplier and governmental bodies can use same software and protocols through internet.

Ex Works: A delivery method in international trade that describes only the cost of the good, providing the delivery of the goods to the consignee in the seller's own warehouse or establishment.

FAS: (Free Alongside Ship) An international sea and inland water transportation method which cost of goods, internal transport services till the port are paid. This term defines the seller's delivering the goods to the determined port to the ship chosen by the consignee as cleared for export.

FCA: (Free Carrier)  An international transportation method which cost of goods and fees of internal transport services till the determined place are paid, and is used for all types of transportation. Seller's liabilities end when the goods are delivered to the carrier at the place designated by the consignee as cleared for export.

FCL: Full Container Load .    

Feeder Service: The event of receiving or delivering goods from large sea vessels to small sea vessels or barges and vice versa.

FEU/FFU: Forty Equivalent Unit/Forty Foot Unit. A first-in, first-out rule for warehousing, often used in warehousing and costing.

Fictive: The bonded warehouse where only the bonded goods of the company are stored.

Fleet Management: Management of vehicle, equipment, garage and infrastructure systems in order and harmony. It covers all the works such as where and when the vehicles will be, their maintenance, which accommodation places they will stay in, the equipment to be found in the vehicle, the status of the driver.

Physical Distribution: Physically carrying the produced goods to the consumers, their storage, checking the inventory, packaging, data communication and execution of orders.

Physical Inventory Count: The process of counting and recording all inventory in a warehouse or facility in a regular manner, usually once or twice a year, with temporary cessation of entry and exit.

FOB: (Free On Board) An international transportation method. Seller loads the goods to the ship that is provided by the consignee at the determined date and place. All types of damage, loss and expenses occurred after the transfer of the goods to the ship are in responsibility of the consignee. Seller prepares the all required documents for export, completes the customs transactions and delivers the goods.

Forklift: Fork lifting-carrying vehicle, fork lift used for handling operations such as loading, unloading, transport, placement, stacking in open and closed areas.

Refrigerated Transport: Transportation Refrigerated Fresh and frozen food transportation down to -26 degrees Celsius.

FSC: Fuel SurCharge. Additional charges to the freight demanded by the shipowners in case of an increase in fuel prices.

FTL: Full Truck Load. It is the full load that a trail can contain.

Gauge: Dimensions that defines the length, width and height of the vehicle in order to navigate safely on the road, loaded or unloaded.

Temporary Admission: Transforming goods to semi finished/finished goods by bringing raw material, semifinished or finished goods from abroad, by processing/not processing or by adding/not adding different substances within the country, and get them out of the country. 

Revenue Management: Increasing the revenue with effective applications.

Silo Racking System: Building type where the racking system acts as a supporting structure of the whole construction.

Concealed Damage: When products in a seemingly undamaged state are discovered to have been damaged.

Consignor: The party,company requesting the transportation of the product.

GPRS: Communication technology that enables the transfer of data to users over the GSM network.

Groupage: Assignment of transportation vehicle or container to more than one consignor.

Bill Of Entry: . Written declaration document stating the properties, dimensions and qualifications of the goods that will enter or leave the country for customs purposes, transit or be subjected to another process.

Customs Permit: A customs document that states that all legal requirements have been fulfilled and the vehicle can leave.

Customs Registration: Approval of customs decleration issued by importer or exporter company or customs agent and submitting to customs approval for import or export of the relevant commodity.

Safe Zone: Area saved for storage of special materials.

Safety Stock: Stock amount that is saved to avoid being out of stock when unexpected situations occur during supply period and consumption.

Route: The route, to be determined in advance, that person, good or vehicle will follow between the departure point and destination.

HAWB: House Air WayBill Airway house bill of lading.

HAZMAT: Hazardous Material. Air Transportation of dangerous goods.

HBL: House Bill of Lading. Maritime house bill of lading.

Rail Consignment Note: A receipt document used in transportation by train.

Moving Rack: . System in which shelf blocks can move horizontally.

Moving Ramp: Equipment that allows the handling equipment to pass between the warehouse and the vehicle body.

Damage: All of the damages that cause loss of value such as breakage, deterioration, wetting during the process of transportation, storage, handling of the materials.

Airway Bill: . Receipt issued by airline companies showing that the goods have been received for carriage.

IATA: International Air Transport Association. Organization that controls the descriptions and authorizations of passenger and cargo transportation on international airway transportations.

IMCO Charge: Additional fee that the ship owner requests for transportation of dangerous goods.

IMO Document: Document needed for transportation of flammable, explosive and chemical materials.

Intermodal Transportation: Intermodal Transportation. Delivering the goods to its final destination without any physical process and opening the container/trailer by using more than one transportation method.

Pick by Light: . In the product collection process, the electronic system that shows the personnel how many products will be collected from which address, via the led screen.

Put to Light: . In the product sortation process, the electronic system that shows the personnel how many products will be put on which address, via the led screen.

Return: Returning the product to the point of departure upon the refusal of the consignee after the product is delivered.

Product Return Form: Form that indicates the reason of return and shows that the product is company's product.

Return Management: Management of procedures such as transportation, warehousing, recycling, disposal of the products returned from customer to the supplier.

Drive-Through Rack: A rack, which allows stacking equipment to go inside the rack from the aisle, makes deep stacking of pallets possible, and thus minimizes the area of space allocated as aisle, and in which minimum type of goods are stored in maximum numbers with the use of rails instead of traverses.

Export: . Commerce of shipping goods from home country to another country.

Replenishment: . Inter-warehouse transfer operation which aims that the material can be found in different packaging format and/or storage locations during warehousing process.

Intranet: Connecting the computer networks to each other to achieve data transfer between company units.

Bill of Landing: . An official document showing the delivery of goods approved by the finance, used when shipping the sold goods from one place to another.

Stack: Bulk cargo consisting different cargos.

Stacking: Piling materials in order to use the volume in the vertical direction.

Import: . Commerce of bringing goods from another country to the country you are in.

Traceability: Reporting of the date about the course of a product from production to the consumption along the supply chain.

Jettison: Throwing materials from a ship in case of an emergency.

Joint Rate: . Price applied from a shipping point to another one.

Just In Time Delivery System: System of delivering goods at required time and quantity, taking from and to the required places under the required conditions.

K1: License which real or legal person should acquire from Ministry of Transport Maritime Affairs and Communications for intercity transport of goods by road with one or more  self-owned vehicles. 

Cabotage: In maritime commerce, authorization of transportation between two places in the same country that a country gives only to the transporters that carry its own flag.

Acceptance Credit: . A Method of payment that undertakes to pay the price of goods in a certain time and in which a policy is a means of payment.

Quality Control: Determining the degree to which the product or service meets the specified quality conditions.

Kanban: Information, document, signal, electronic message that provides the supply of the material needed in the production / supply systems, when it is needed and in the amount needed.

Road Transportation: Transportation model that refers to transportation of the good from departure point to destination by road.

Quarantine Stock: Inventory that is kept separate from intact products due to recall of damaged goods, defective products, etc.

Intermodal Transportation: Using at least two different modes of transportaion together for the same shipment.

Counter-trade: . Procedures involves interchanging two group of goods which are known to have same value, directly and simultaneously performed under a single contract where financial payments or fund transfers are not specified.

Value Added: Value such as labour, depreciation, a company adds to its inputs.

Value Added Services: VAS. Services provided in warehouses upon customer's demand such as labeling, packaging, enfolding, temperature measuring,  palletization, transfer, mixing, adding a user's manual, combining, seperation, light assembly, return procedures, disposal, barcode procedures,  maintenance and repair.  

Flow Rack: For packages such as boxes, pallets, a rack where, after one package is taken, other packages slide on inclined rollers to the unloading position.

Kingpin: Large bolt that connects the tow-truck to the semi-trailer.

Knocked Down: KD. Dismantling the load so as to reassambly again for an economic loading.

Code: The numeric or alphanumeric designation of text to classify commonly used information.

Combined Transportation: Transportation system that includes railway, river, canal or maritime other than road, from departure point to the destination.

Complete: The assignment of a transport vehicle or container to consigner.

Consignations: . The export of sending goods to foreign buyers, brokers, and the exporter's branch representations abroad, final sales to be completed in the future.

Consignment Stock: Payment of which will be done when the goods are used.

Consolidation: . Saving scale in transportation by creating large loading lots from small quantities of cargo.

Cantilever Rack: A rack that has an open front and horizontal carrying wings and is used to stack side by side or on top of each other especially long items such as profiles, pipes, plates, plastics, wood, etc.

Bill of Lading: . Order of loading.

Container: Metal cargo boxes that are resistant to every kind of weather conditions, specially used in maritime transportation related combined transportations, in which loads that can be handled and stacked are placed.

Contract Logistics: Performing the logistics operations with oursources on contractual basis between logistics service provider companies and customers.

Conveyor: . Closed-circuit working transfer mechanism for transportation of cargo on air or road.

Aisle: Passageway in the storage area.

Available Addresses: Availability of the locations that are determined for purposes such as storage, handling, vehicle loadin/unloading in logistics facilities.

Opening: The right that owners of goods have to inspect the goods, take samples and weigh them before drawing up the declaration.

L2 Document: Type of authorization document that companies operating in international logistics should have in accordance with the Road Transport Law.

LCL: Less than Container Load. Partial container loading:      

LIFO: Last In First Out.  Principle of most recently produced items as sold first.

Lm: Loading meter. Maximum meter that cargo can be stacked to the vehicle.      

Logistics: The physical flow of transportation, storage, packaging and handling, and the service flow of customs clearance, insurance, surveillance, stock management and order management.

Logistics Management: The stage of the supply chain process that includes the planning, implementation, and control of the forward and reverse flow and storage of goods, services, and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption to meet customer requirements.

Low-bed Trailer: . A semi-trailer that allows shipment of loads, which are non-standard according to the international and domestic road transportation directive such as heavy duty vehicles or special task loads, and which have a different length, height, width and tonnage from those of regular trucks and TIRs.

Lo-Lo: Lift on/Lift off. Loading or unloading by crane.

Return to Country Of Origin: . Returning the imported product to the country of import in cases where it does not comply with its specifications.

Material Receiving: Receiving of the materials to the warehouse.

Material Receiving Area: The area where materials are received to thhe warehouse.

Cash Against Goods: . The payment method in which the price of the exported product is paid after the goods are received by the importer.

Material Request: A request to receive goods from the warehouse, or to initiate the purchasing process if it is not available in the warehouse.

Material Management: Management that includes activities such as coding, planning, stock control, supply, storage of all materials of a company.

Manifest: . Document showing the list of details prepared by the carrier and its agent.

Maut: Highway use tax applied in Germany to vehicles over 12 tones.

MAWB: Master Air WayBill. Airway master bill of lading.

MBL: Master Bill of Lading. Maritime master bill of lading.  

Certificate of Origin: . An international trading document that shows the origin of the goods in circulation and which country it belongs to.

Seasonal Stock: The stock that is kept before the start of the season to meet the demand that will arise during the season.

Mezzanine Type: Single or multi-deck platform.

Missing IOD: Missing of information about the delivery of products.

Inspection: Controlling the material at storage or customs points, under the supervision of officials or third parties, by taking samples and analyzing them when necessary.

Force Majeure: . A contract provision stipulating that parties cannot be held responsible for unexpected situations such as earthquake, flooding, war, etc. that arise outside their control.

Seal: . A type of locking system that is put in place after the vehicle has been cleared of customs and shows that it has not been opened.

Notify party: . Where arrival of goods are notified.     

NVOCC            : Non Vessel Operating Common Carrier. A general carrier who is not a ship owner can draw up a bill of lading. Cargo consolidator who acts like a carrier by accepting the responsibilities of the carrier, although he is not a vehicle owner.

Freight: . Fee paid for transportation service.

Delivery Order: . An order and instruction that allows clearance of the goods stated in the bill of lading in parts. It is also an order for customs clearance of the goods against the bill of lading.

Average Inventory: Average level of stock that is kept for a product, group of products, or all products at a certain period.

Automatic Storage System: AS/RS. A storage system operate the placement of the material in the warehouse and the transportation of the material from the storage location are carried out with computer-controlled hardware, in which robots that can move horizontally and vertically for placement and collection in each shelf aisle. 

Dead Stock: Inventory that has not been demanded or consumed for a certain period of time.

Summary Declaration: . A document showing that the product to be imported or exported has arrived at the customs.

POD: Sea freight. Port Of Discharge. .

POL: Port Of Loading. .

Project Cargo: Project transportation. A term used to describe the national or international transportation of large, heavy, high-value or critical pieces of equipment.

Paletting: Stacking the product on pallets for transportation and storage.

Panelvan: It is a light commercial vehicle with a semi-closed open body, similar to a minibus, with a 3- to 5-meter-long closed body, produced for carrying loads.

Partial Shipments: . The method of transporting the loads of different customers on the same route with the same TIR.

Proforma: Preliminary invoice issued by the seller on behalf of the consignee and showing all the details of the agreement.

Rail Guided Aisle An aisle with guided rails that allow the narrow aisle stackers to move on a certain direction.

Reach-Truck: Electronic stacking equipment that allows simple, easy, fast and safe movement on warehouses with side-loading and 10-13-meter high stacking on wide aisles with around 3 meter width.

Reefer: Container with cooling system.

Reserved Areas: Special areas, such as a predetermined cross-docking area, to be used for placement, collecting, or other purposes.

Reserved Stock: The required amount of reserved stock within the framework of a work or order for a particular product.

RF Hand Terminal: Radio Frequency. Easy-to-use mobile hand-held computers that collect information by performing manual transactions with barcode, QR code or buttons; deliver this information online via radio frequency to the system database completely and without an error; and display on its screen the system database information to guide the personnel.

RF ID: An automated recognition system, which consists of a microchip with an antenna and a reader; is integrated with a software-hardware system; and for which data communication between the label and reader is provided through radio waves.

Ro-Ro: Ro-Ro Ship. A ship used for wheeled vehicle transportation.

Routing: Determining the order and route of the transportation process from the departure point to the destination.

Trailer: A load-carrying road transportation vehicle, which is driven by a tow-truck and is built according to the load it will haul, and can park on its own tires.

Tugboat: A motorized sea vessel that assists large ships to maneuver fast and safely on port areas.

Roller Conveyor: An equipment that moves products or shipping cases (pallets, baskets, etc.) placed on it through the rolling motion of cylindrical casts.

R2 Document: . Type of authorization document that companies operating in international trasportation business should have in accordance with the Road Transport Law.

SCM: Supply Chain Management.

SECA: Emission control areas for sea shipments.

Shipper: Sender.   

Short Sea: Short-distance maritime shipment.

SLA: Service Level Agreement. Contract for delivery times.        

SSC: Security SurCharge. Additional charges to the freight demanded by the shipowners against security risks.          

Stripping: Stripping of container. .    

Stuffing: Stuffing of container. .

Dedicated Storage Policy:  The policy of storing each product on a place especially dedicated for it.

Free Zone: Although it is a part of the Customs Territory of Turkey, free zones are places where the product that is not in free circulation are placed without being subjected to any customs regime and without being put into free circulation, provided that it is not used or consumed except for the cases stipulated in the customs legislation, and for the product in free circulation, places which is considered to be outside the Customs Territory of Turkey in terms of import duties and the implementation of trade policy measures and benefits from the opportunities associated with the export of the goods in the ordinary way, since the product is placed in a free zone.

Packing Slip: . An official document that states the name, amount, freight cost, and the number of the issued invoice for the goods on the vehicle. 

Shipment: . Taking orders out of the warehouse to be delivered to required locations along with official documents by sorting them according to certain criteria such as delivery date, location, loading vehicle, route, amount, etc.

Border Gate: The border gate of the country where export and/or import vehicles enter or leave the countries on their transit routes.

Sequential Stacking: Stacking loads on the floor in a plan, without using racks.

Back-to-Back Rack Space: The space left between two racks, in back-to-back rack system taking into account the overflow of pallets on the racks.

Back-to-Back Rack System: . The most widespread, economic and extensively used rack system that is highly suitable for pallet use. Front sides of the racks face the aisle and the back sides remain close to each other. They provide direct access to all product types, and can be used manually or with handling equipment.

Order Confirmation Number: The number indicating the finalized order for a good to be delivered on a certain date.

Order Picking: The process of the warehouse personnel getting ready for delivery according to the amount and time given the company by the customer for the warehoused products or services.

Picker: . Material handling equipment that is designed to collect orders on the rack that are lesser than a pallet load, and allows the operator to rise when collecting items horizontally and vertically.

Order Picker:  Stacking equipment that allows to operator to go up and pick up orders.

Salvage: Material value set by the insurance expert for damaged goods.

Available to Promise: Planned stock amount that shows the time that future orders can be fulfilled.

Ratchet Strap: The general name of polyester straps, which are fixed to the surface on which the load will be carried by passing over the load, and which are used to fix the load by stretching with a tensioning mechanism known as a “gır gır".

Spot Vehicle: . A general name for freelancing vehicles with a one-time transportation agreement

Standard Pallet Rack: A classic rack that is designed for standard pallets in Euro, ISO, and similar norms.

Uniform Product Code: Given by the Uniform Product Code Council (UPCC), its first and last 5 characters identify the manufacturer and the product, respectively.

Stock:  Items that are kept in the warehouse for the need that will or may arise in the future.

Inventory Turnover Rate: The ratio of the cost or amount of goods sold in an operating period to average stock value or amount

Adjustment: . Systemically increasing or decreasing stocks in order to correct stock errors on the system.

Stock Control: Determining the orders or needs in a way to eliminate excess or deficiency of stock by constantly and periodically monitoring stocks according to set rules.

Account: . Term used for the systematic separation of stocks of different features.

Sousplan: The situation in which the customs clearance of the material is made on the transportation vehicle, which is generally used in land and sea transportation.

Sustainable Warehouse: Areas that can provide services for an extended period of time by carrying out activities with awareness towards the environment and society.

Continuous Replenishment: Coordinating the flow of goods and information in the supply chain to achieve constant product flow and have less products in retail stocks.

Swap Body: Containers that are built so thin that they cannot be stacked one on top another or be lifted from atop by the stacker. 

Buffer Stock: A quantity of physical inventory held by a company to hedge against unexpected changes in supply and demand.

Transportation: Transporting people and loads between certain points.

Delivery Note: . An official document issued in the event that the carrier transports a goods or cargo for a specified fee.

Mobile Rack:   A rack that can be moved while empty or full.

Supply: All research, selection, planning, stock control, purchasing, shipping, receiving, assessing, and similar operations that are required to acquire the needed machinery, equipment, raw materials, materials, parts, semi-finished products, products and services from the suitable supplier.

Supply Chain: Network of manufacturers and distributors who procure raw materials, transform them into finished products and distribute products to customers.

Supplier: A company that provides goods and services.

Procurement Period: The time between the giving of a purchase order or production order of a product/service and the fulfillment of order delivery or manufacturing.

Receiving: The process of receiving the goods from the authorized personnel who delivered the material by the company representative.

Certificate Of Delivery: . The document certifying that the goods have been transferred to the responsibility of the related party with the signature and stamp while receiving or delivering the goods from the company which provided storage, transportation and/or value added services, supplier or customers.

TEU: Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit. 20 feet container equivalent unit.          

THC: Terminal Handling Charges. .

TIR Carnet: . A customs transit document that provides transportation under a procedure from the customs office at the point of departure to the customs office at the destination.

Tonnage: Carrying capacity of the cargo transport vehicle in tons.

Picking Area: Predetermined location for each item to be used for picking, placing and replenishment.

Transpalet: Handling equipment suitable for working in low levels, used for picking orders in the warehouse, loading and unloading vehicles.

TMS: Transportation Management System. A logistics platform that uses technology to help establishments plan, execute and optimize the physical transportation of both inbound and outbound goods, ensuring that transportation complies with the law and appropriate documentation is available.

ULD: Unit Load Device. .

ECMT: European Conference of Ministers of Transport

Third Party Logistics – 3PL: . Logistics companies that undertake the logistics activities of their customers and are experts in their field. The term first party refers to the seller company, the second party refers to the buyer company, and the third party refers to the company that undertakes some services between the seller and the buyer companies.

Product Picking: The process of picking the products in the warehouse from their addresses in accordance to the customer demands.

Cash Against Documents – CAD: Exporter's benefitting from services of a bank to collect the money from buyer for the goods the exporter sells.

VAL Cargo: Valuable Cargo. .

Loading Area: An area such as a pallet or platform where loads are placed.

Endorsement: A document issued to indicate the changes that have occurred during the period in which the insurance policy is in effect.